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Imām Muḥammad ibn Ḥasan al-Mahdī (aswaf) - sunnitische Überlieferungen


(Hier werden, insha Allah, nach und nach Überlieferungen aus sunnitischen Quellen zusammengeführt, die bestätigen, was Schiiten glauben. Englische Texte müssen noch übersetzt werden. Das soll nach und nach geschehen, da die Kapazitäten dafür nur gering sind. Der Text wird weiter bearbeitet, Irrtümer korrigiert und Neufunde ergänzt. Wer etwas beitragen möchte, ist dazu herzlich eingeladen.)

Zitate zu al-Mahdi aus Hadith-Sammlungen in deutscher und englischer Übersetzung

gesammelt und mit Bemerkungen versehen
von Haiko Hasan Hoffmann

"Wenn nicht mehr als ein Tag bliebe von der Ewigkeit, würde Allah Taala einen Mann aus meinem Hause senden, um sie mit Gerechtigkeit zu erfüllen, so wie sie mit Unrecht erfüllt war" [Lau lam yabqa min ad-dahri illâ yaumun la-ba'atha Allâhu Ta'âlâ radjulan min ahli baitî yamla'uhâ 'adlan kamâ muli'at djauran. überliefert von Ali in Musnad des Ahmad bin Hanbal und bei Abu Dawud, Hadith hasan (=akzeptabel)]
Quelle: As-Suyuti, al-Djami' as-Saghir, Nr. 7489

"Wenn nicht mehr als ein Tag übrig bliebe vom Diesseits, Allah wird diesen Tag derart verlängern, bis er in ihm einen Mann von meinem Hause sendet, dessen Name mit meinem und seines Vaters Namen mit meines Vaters Namen gleich sein wird, und die Erde mit Gerechtigkeit füllen wird, so wie sie mit Unrecht erfüllt war." [lau lam yabqa min ad-dunyâ illâ yaumun la-tawwala Allâhu dhâlika al-yauma hattâ yub'atha fîhi radjulun min ahli baitî yuwâtî'u ismuhu ismî wa ismu abîhi ismu abî yamla'u al-arda qistan wa 'adlan kamâ muli'at zulman wa djauran. überliefert von Ibn Mas'ud bei Abu Dawud]
Quelle: As-Suyuti, al-Djami' as-Saghir, Nr. 7490

Bemerkung:
Alle sunnitischen und schiitischen Gelehrten sind sich einig, daß al-Mahdi (aswaf) den Namen "Muhammad" tragen wird.

"Wenn nicht mehr als ein Tag übrig bliebe vom Diesseits, Allah wird den Tag derart verlängern, bis ein Mann aus meinem Hause kommen und regieren wird, und der Herr der Berge von Dailam und von Konstantinopel sein wird." (Abu Huraira) [Lau lam yabqa min ad-dunyâ illâ yaumun la-tawwalahu Allâhu hattâ yamluka radjulun min ahli baitî yamluku Djabal ad-Dailam wal Qustantinîya; überliefert von Ibn Madja]
Quelle: As-Suyuti, al-Djami' as-Saghir, Nr. 7491

"Al-Mahdi ist von meiner Nachkommenschaft, von einem Sohn der Fatima (oder auch: von der Nachkommenschaft der Fatima, da "walad" im Arabischen auch als Kollektiv für Nachkommenschaft steht)" [Al-Mahdîyyu min 'itratî, min walad Fatima; von Umm Salama überliefert in Abu Dawud, Ibn Madja und al-Hakim als Hadith sahîh (=gesund)]
Quelle: As-Suyuti, al-Djami' as-Saghir, Nr. 9241

Bemerkung:
Dies ist nicht aus einer schiitischen Quelle entnommen, sondern aus dem Sunan des Abu Dawud (Buch 36 "Kitab al-Mahdi", in der englischen Version Hadith Nr. 4271) und auch bei Ibn Madja (nach einer englischen Quelle Hadith 4086) sowie an-Nasa'i (leider ohne nähere Angabe), alle drei Teil der Kutub as-Sitta, auch wenn es in Sahih Buchari und Sahih Muslim nicht vorkommt, was aber nicht bedeutet, daß diese Aussage nicht authentisch sein kann, da Buchari und Muslim nicht alleine gültig und diese Sammlungen auch nicht unfehlbar sind! Dieser Hadith, auf den ich im Zuge der Recherche zu dieser Email gestoßen bin, ist in sofern bemerkenswert, als al-Mahdi angekündigt wird vom Propheten Muhammad (Sallalahu alaihí wa alihi wa sallam), indem dieser von den Nachkommen seiner Tochter Fatima sein wird (min walad Fatima). Ich komme also nach diesem als SAHIH eingestuften Hadith nicht umhin jetzt festzustellen, daß die Schiiten hier nicht Unrecht haben dürften (von sunnitischeh Gelehrten aber oft geleugnet). Einer der Nachkommen Fatimas, d.h. einer der Nachkommen Husains, und sein Bruder Hasan auch nicht in Frage kommt, und Husain selbst nicht der Mahdi war bzw. sein kann. Eine andere Logik ist danach nicht möglich. Dieser Hadith, als Hadith Sahih, d.h. echter und authentischer Ausspruch des Propheten (sallalahu alaihi wa sallam) muß daher stärker im Argument sein als alle schwächeren Ahadith und ein Leugnen dieser Aussage unmöglich machen, da diese Aussage nicht falsch sein kann.
Es gibt, wie ich feststelle, eine ganze Menge mehr Aussagen, die eher darauf hindeuten, daß aus der Familie des Propheten al-Mahdi kommt. Andere Ahadith, die besagen, daß al-Mahdi aus dem Hause Quraisch bzw. Hashim kommen, sind tatsächlich kein Widerspruch dazu, da Muhammad (sallalahu alaihi wa alihi wa sallam) und seine Tochter Fatima aus dem Stamme der Banu Hashim kommen, welcher ein Stamm des Stammesverbandes der Quraisch war und ist.

"Al-Mahdi ist von einem Sohn meines Onkels al-'Abbas (oder auch von der Nachkommenschaft meines Onkels al-'Abbâs)." [Al-Mahdîyyu min walad al-'Abbâs 'ammî; von Uthman überliefert bei Daraqutni, Hadith da'if (=schwach)]
Quelle: As-Suyuti, al-Djami' as-Saghir, Nr. 9242

Bemerkung:
Im Gegensatz zur vorher zitierten Überlieferung scheinbar im Widerspruch dazu. Aber dieser Hadith ist als schwach (dha'if) eingestuft worden und nicht in den Kutub as-Sitta vertreten.

"Al-Mahdî ist von uns, von den Leuten meines Hauses, die Allah in einer Nacht rechtschaffen machte" [Al-Mahdî minnâ ahla al-baiti yuslihuhu Allahu fi lailatin; von Ali übrliefert in Ahmad bin Hambals Musnad und bei Ibn Madja; Hadith hasan (=akzeptabel)]
Quelle: As-Suyuti, al-Djami' as-Saghir, Nr. 9243

"Al-Mahdî ist von mir: mit erhabener Stirn und Nase; der die Erde mit Gerechtigkeit und Redlichkeit füllen wird, so wie sie mit Unrecht und Unredlichkeit gefüllt war. Er wird 7 Jahre herrschen." [Al-Mahdî minnî: Adjlâ al-djabha, al-anf; yamla'a al-arda qistan wa 'adlan kamâ muli'at djauran wa zulman, yamliku sab'a sinîn; überliefet von Abu Sa'id in Abu Dawud und al-Hakim; Hadith sahih (=gesund)]
Quelle: As-Suyuti, al-Djami' as-Saghir, Nr. 9244

"Al-Mahdi ist ein Mann von meinen Nachkommen: sein Gesicht ist wie ein funkelnder Stern" [Al-Mahdî radjulun min waladî: wadjhuhu kal-kaukab ad-dûrîyy; überliefert von Hudhaifa; Hadith sahih (=gesund)]
Quelle: As-Suyuti, al-Djami' as-Saghir, Nr. 9245

Bemerkung:
Es gibt eine ganze Menge mehr Aussagen, die eher darauf hindeuten, daß aus der Familie des Propheten al-Mahdi kommt. Andere Ahadith, die besagen, daß al-Mahdi aus dem Hause Quraisch bzw. Hashim kommen, sind tatsächlich kein Widerspruch dazu, da Muhammad (sallalahu alaihi wa alihi wa sallam) und seine Tochter Fatima aus dem Stamme der Banu Hashim kommen, welcher ein Stamm des Stammesverbandes der Quraisch war und ist.

Wir haben also davon auszugehen, daß al-Mahdi kommen wird.

Nach alledem ist es jemand aus dem Hause des Propheten (sallallahu alaihi wa alihi wa sallam), wo logischerweise dann nur Nachfahren der Fatima in Frage kommen können. Wird es der von den Zwölfer-Schiiten behauptete 12. Imam Muhammad al-Mahdi sein, der mit vollem Namen Muhammad bin Hasan bin Ali bin Muhammad bin Ali bin Musa bin Jaafar bin Muhammad bin Ali bin Husain bin Ali bin Abi Talib heißt - und noch immer im Verborgenen leben soll? Oder wird es einer der Nachfahren Husains, Sohn der Fatima, sein, von denen es heute sehr sehr viele gibt, die bei den Schiiten "Sayyid" genannt werden? Nur diese beiden Möglichkeiten gäbe es dann. Alle gegenteiligen Argumente stünden im Widerspruch zu Aussagen des Propheten (Sallalahu alaihi wa alihi wa sallam).
Die richtige Antwort kann man meine Erachtens nur herausfinden, wenn man Fragen stellt und sich die Freiheit nimmt, Antworten durch eigene Suche zu finden. Es ist nichts als eine Suche nach Wahrheit. Kann das falsch sein?

The Prophet (PBUH&HF) said: "Even if the entire duration of the world's existence has already been exhausted and only one day is left (before the day of judgment), Allah will expand that day to such a length of time, as to accommodate the kingdom of a person from my Ahlul-Bayt who will be called by my name. He will fill out the earth with peace and justice as it will have been full of injustice and tyranny (by then)."

References:
     Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v2, p86, v9, pp 74-75
     Sunan Abu Dawud, v2, p7
     Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v1, pp 84,376; V3, p63
     al-Mustadrak ala al-Sahihayn, by al-Hakim, v4, p557
     Jami' al-Saghir, by al-Suyuti, pp 2,160
     al-Urful Wardi, by al-Suyuti, p2
     al-Majma', by al-Tabarani, p217
     Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, v9, p144
     Fat'h al-Bari fi Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, by Ibn Hajar Asqalani, v7, p305
     al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Ch. 11, section 1, p249
     al-Tathkirah, by al-Qurtubi, p617
     al-Hawi, by al-Suyuti, v2, pp 165-166
     Sharh al-Mawahib al-Ladunniyyah, by al-Zurqani, v5, p348
     Fat'h al-Mugheeth, by al-Sakhawi, v3, p41
     Kanz al-Ummal, v7 P186
     Iqd al-Durar Fi Akhbar al-Mahdi al-Muntadhar, v12, Ch. 1,
     al-Bayan fi Akhbar Sahib al-Zaman, By Ganji al-Shafi'i, Ch. 12
     al-Fusool al-Muhimmah, by Ibn Sabbagh al-Maliki, Ch. 12
     Arjahul Matalib, by Ubaidallah Hindi al-Hanafi, p380
     Muqaddimah, by Ibn Khaldoon, p266
     and also in the works of Ibn Habban, Abu Nua'ym, Ibn Asakir, etc.

The Prophet (PBUH&HF) said: "al-Mahdi is one of us, the members of the household (Ahlul-Bayt)." 

Reference: Sunan Ibn Majah, v2, Tradition #4085

The Prophet (PBUH&HF) said: The Mahdi will be of my family, of the descendants of Fatimah (the Prophet's daughter). 

References:
     Sunan Abu Dawud, English version, Ch. 36, Tradition #4271 (narrated by Umm Salama, the wife of the Prophet)
     Sunan Ibn Majah, v2, Tradition #4086
     al-Nisa'i and al-Bayhaqi,
     and others as quoted in: al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Ch. 11, section 1, p249

The Prophet (PBUH&HF) said: "We the children of Abd al-Muttalib are the Masters of the inhabitants of the heaven: Myself, Hamza (RA), Ali (AS), Ja'far Ibn Abi Talib (RA), al-Hasan (AS), al-Husain (AS), and al-Mahdi (AS)." 

References:
     Sunan Ibn Majah, v2, Tradition #4087
     al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, on the authority of Anas Ibn Malik
     al-Daylami
     al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Ch. 11, section 1, p245

The Prophet (PBUH&HF) said: "The Mahdi will appear in my Ummah. He will appear for a minimum of 7 or a maximum of 9 years; at that time, my Ummah will experience a bountiful favor like never before. It shall have a great abundance of food, of which it need not save anything, and the wealth at that time is in great quantities, such that if a man asks the Mahdi to give him some, and the Mahdi (AS) will say: Here! Take!" 

Reference: Sunan Ibn Majah, v2, Tradition #5083

The Prophet (PBUH&HF) said: "We (I and my family) are members of a household that Allah (SWT) has chosen for them the life of the Hereafter over the life of this world; and the members of my household (Ahlul-Bayt) shall suffer a great affliction and they shall be forcefully expelled from their homes after my death; then there will come people from the East carrying black flags, and they will ask for some good to be given to them, but they shall be refused service; as such, they will wage war and emerge victorious, and will be offered that which they desired in the first place, but they will refuse to accept it till they pass it to a man from my family (Ahlul-Bayt) appears to fill the Earth with justice as it has been filled with corruption. So whoever reaches that (time) ought to come to them even if crawling on the ice/snow since among them is the Vice-regent of Allah (Khalifatullah) al-Mahdi." 

References:
     Sunan Ibn Majah, v2, Tradition #4082,
     The History Tabari
     al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar, Ch. 11, section 1, pp 250-251

The Messenger of Allah said: "The world will not perish until a man among the Arabs appears whose name matches my name." 

Reference: Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v9, p74

Abu Nadra reported: We were with the company of Jabir Ibn Abdillah... Jabir Ibn Abdillah kept quite for a while and then reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said: "There would be a Caliph in the last (period) of my Ummah who would freely give handfuls of wealth to the people without counting it." I said to Abu Nadra and Abu al-Ala: Do you mean Umar Ibn Abd al-Aziz? They said: NO, (he would be Imam Mahdi). 

References:
     Sahih Muslim, English version, v4, chapter MCCV, p1508, Tradition #6961
     Sahih Muslim, Arabic version, Kitab al-Fitan, v4, p2234, Tradition #67

Abu Sa'id and Jabir Ibn Abdullah reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: "There would be in the last (phase) of the time a Caliph who would distribute wealth but would not count." 

References:
Sahih Muslim, English version, v4, chapter MCCV, p1508, Tradition #6964
Sahih Muslim, Arabic version, Kitab al-Fitan, v4, p2235, Tradition #69

"In the end of the time, my Ummah will undergo very hard affliction like never before, so that man can not find any way out. Then Allah will appear a person from my progeny, that is my Ahlul-Bayt, who will fill the earth with justice as it was filled with injustice. The inhabitants of the earth and the inhabitants of the heaven love him. The sky will bring down its water everywhere and the earth will bring all what it can offer and will become green all over." 

References:
     al-Sahih fi al-Hadith, by al-Hakim, as quoted in:
     al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Ch. 11, section 1, p250

Ibn Majah in his Sunan quotes Muhammad Ibn Hanafiyyah and Imam Ali saying that the Holy Prophet (PBUH&HF) said: "al-Mahdi is from our Ahlul-Bayt, no doubt Allah will enforce his appearance within a night (i.e., his coming is very unpredictable and is very sudden)." 

References:
     Sunan Ibn Majah, v2, p269
     Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, as quoted in:
     al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Ch. 11, section 1, p250

Ali Ibn Abi Talib (AS) said: "When the 'Support' of the family of Muhammad (al-Qa'im Aale Muhammad) rises Allah will unite the people of east and the people of west."
References: 

     Ibn Asakir, as quoted in: al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Ch. 11, section 1, p252

Muqatil Ibn Sulayman and those who followed him among the (Sunni) commentators of Quran said that the verse: "And he shall be a Sign for (the coming of) the Hour" (Quran 43:61) was revealed about al-Mahdi. 

Reference: al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar, Ch. 11, section 1, p247

The Prophet (PBUH&HF) said: "Allah will bring out from concealment al-Mahdi from my Family and just before the Day of Judgment; even if only one day were to remain in the life of the world, and he will spread on this earth justice and equity and will eradicate tyranny and oppression." 

References:
     Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v1, p99
     A close version has also been narrated in Sunan Abu Dawud, English version, Ch. 36, Tradition #4270 narrated from Ali Ibn Abi Talib (AS).

Jabir Ibn Abdillah al-Ansari (RA) said: I heard the Messenger of Allah saying: "A group of my Ummah will fight for the truth until near the day of judgment when Jesus, the son of Marry, will descend, and the leader of them will ask him to lead the prayer, but Jesus declines, saying: "No, Verily, among you Allah has made leaders for others and He has bestowed his bounty upon them." 

Reference:
     Sahih Muslim, Arabic, part 2, p193
     Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v3, pp 45,384
     al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Ch. 11, section 1, p251
     Nuzool Isa Ibn Maryam Akhir al-Zaman, by Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, p57 

Musnad, by Abu Ya'ala which provides another version of the tradition with more clear words on the authority of Jabir that the Messenger of Allah said: "A group among my Ummah will continue to fight for the truth until Jesus, the son of Marry, will descend, and the Imam of them will ask him to lead the prayer, but Jesus replies: "You have more right to it, and verily Allah has honored some of you over others in this Ummah." Sahih Ibn Habban, whose tradition reads: "their leader al-Mahdi" and the rest of tradition is the same.

Ibn Abu Shaybah, another Sunni traditionist, and the mentor of al-Bukhari and Muslim, has reported several traditions about Imam al-Mahdi (AS). He has also reported that the Imam of the Muslims who will lead Prophet Jesus in prayer is Imam al-Mahdi himself.

Jalaluddin al-Suyuti mentioned that: "I have heard some of the deniers of (truth) deny what has been conveyed about Jesus that when he descends will pray the Fajr prayer behind al-Mahdi. They say, Jesus has higher status than to pray behind a non-Prophet. This is a bizarre opinion since the issue of prayer of Jesus behind al-Mahdi has been proven strongly via numerous authentic traditions from the Messenger of Allah, who is the most truthful." And then al-Suyuti goes on narrating some of the traditions in this regard. (See Nuzool Isa Ibn Maryam Akhir al-Zaman, by Jalaluddin al Suyuti, p56).

"The Mahdi is of this Ummah, and that Jesus (PBUH&HF) will come down and pray
behind him." 

Reference: Fat'h al-Bari, by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, v5, p362

"The Ahlul-Bayt are like the stars through whom we are guided in the right direction, and if the starts are taken away (or hidden) we would come face to face with the signs of the Almighty as promised (i.e., the Day of Resurrection). This will happen when the Mahdi will come, as mentioned in the traditions, and the Prophet Jesus will say his prayers behind him, the Dajjal will be slain, and then the signs of the Almighty will appear one after another."  

Reference: al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar, Ch. 11, section 1, p234

Ibn Hajar quoted Abu al-Husain al-Ajiri saying: The traditions of al-Mustafa (PBUH&HF) on the rising of al-Mahdi has been transmitted via numerous authorities and is more than the level of (being sufficient for) Mutawatir, describing that he is of his Ahlul-Bayt, and will fill the earth with justice, and that Jesus (AS) will come at the same time and he will assist Jesus for killing al-Dajjal in the land of Palestine, and that he will lead this nation and Jesus will pray behind him. 

Reference: Abu al-Husain al-Ajiri as quoted in al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar, Ch. 11, section 1, p254

I should point out that, there exists a fabricated tradition which is mainly used by Ahmadis and Qadianis to prove that al-Mahdi and Jesus are the same. The tradition states: "And no Mahdi except Jesus." This tradition has been rated by al-Hakim as unknown and strange and he said there are discrepancy in its chain of authorities. al-Bayhaqi said Muhammad Ibn Khalid said this tradition is single (Mufrad). al-Nisa'i has mentioned that this tradition is unfamiliar and is denied, and that the memorizers of traditions confirm that the traditions which state that al-Mahdi is the descendants of Fatimah are authentic and reliable. (See al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, Ch. 11, section 1, p252 for details).

In Sahih al-Bukhari, it is narrated that:
The Prophet (PBUH&HF) said: "What would be your situation if the Son of Marry (i.e. Jesus) descends upon you and your Imam is among you?" 

Reference: Sahih al-Bukhari, Arabic-English, v4, Tradition #658
NOTE: The above is my own translation. The Saudi-paid translator of Sahih al-Bukhari(Muhammad Muhsin Khan) has shown pure dishonesty in translating the above tradition. His translation of the last portion of the tradition does not bear any similarity what so ever with the Arabic text of the tradition which is as follows:

Now let us look at the false translation of Mr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan:
Muhammad Muhsin Khan> Sahih Bukhari Hadith: 4.658
Muhammad Muhsin Khan> Narrated Abu Huraira:
Muhammad Muhsin Khan>
Muhammad Muhsin Khan> Allah's Apostle said "How will you be when the son
Muhammad Muhsin Khan> of Mary (i.e. Jesus) descends amongst you and he
Muhammad Muhsin Khan> will judge people by the Law of the Quran
Muhammad Muhsin Khan> and not by the law of Gospel.

Mr. Muhsin Khan has trimmed the last part of the tradition which states that the Imam of Muslims (i.e., Imam al-Mahdi) is among Muslims when the son of marry descends. Instead, the translator has added another sentence which does not exists in the Arabic text. I should mention that this is not the only place that he has altered the text, and there are much more examples in this regard which proves his bias and his dishonesty.

Al-Hafidh Muhammad Ibn Ali al-Shawkani (d. 1250/1834) wrote in a book called "al-Tawdhih fi twawatur ma jaa'a fil muntadar wad-djjal wal masih" (the explanation about the frequent reports concerning the Awaited one, the Dajjal, and the messiah) in which he wrote about Imam al-Mahdi (AS) that: "The traditions about al-Mahdi have been related by numerous authorities and are therefor reliable beyond doubt or confusion, because in jurisprudence the qualification of Mutawatir is valid even for (traditions) with less than this number of narrations. There are also many sayings of the companions (of the Prophet) which explicitly mention the Mahdi, which have the status of narrations from the Prophet since there is no question of establishing such saying through Ijtihad (one's opinion and research)". The author gives the same opinion in his other book "al-Fat'h al-Rabbani". (In this connection see also Mawsu'atil Imam al-Mahdi, v1, pp 391-392,413-414,434, and also Tuhfatul Ahwadhi, v6, p485).

The author of the book, "Ghayah al-Ma'amool," mentioned that: "It is a famous narration among the Scholars of the past and the present that there has to appear a man from the family of the Prophet (PBUH&HF) named al-Mahdi. In addition, the traditions about the Mahdi have been narrated by the most renowned companions of the Prophet (PBUH&HF), as well as by the most renowned scholars such as Abu Dawud, al-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, al-Tabarani, Abu Ya'ala, al-Bazzar, Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, and al-Hakim (May Allah be pleased with them all); furthermore, those who claim that the traditions narrated with regard to the appearance of the Mahdi are weak, are themselves in error."

Al-Saban in his book, "Is'af al-Raghibeen," mentioned that: "The news about the appearance of the Mahdi are traceable back to the Prophet (PBUH&HF), and that he is one of the members of the family of the Prophet (PBUH&HF); and that he will fill the Earth with justice." Al-Suwaydi in his book, "Saba'iq al-Dhahab," reported that: "The scholars have a consensus that the Mahdi (AS) will appear at the end of time and fill the Earth with justice; and the traditions supporting his appearance are indeed numerous."

al-Hafidh Abul-Hasan Muhammad Ibn al-Husain al-Sijistani al-Aburi al-Shafi'i (d. 363/974) said: "The traditions were related by numerous authorities and were spread far and wide by many narrators, from al-Mustafa (PBUH&HF) concerning al-Mahdi who is from the household (of the Prophet) and who will fill the world with justice.." This statement was accepted by the subsequent scholars as testified by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (See Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, v9, p144; Fat'h al-Bari, v7, p305), al-Qurtubi (al-Tathkirah, p617), al-Suyuti (al-Hawi, v2, pp 165-166), al-Muttaqi al-Hindi (al-Burhan fi Alamat Mahdi Akhir al-Zaman, pp 175-176), Ibn Hajar al-Haythami (al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, Ch. 11, section 1, p249), al-Zurqani (Sharh al-Mawahib al-Ladunniyyah, v5, p348),al-Sakhawi (Fat'h al-Mugheeth, v3, p41), etc.

The best formulation of the belief of all Muslims about al-Mahdi (AS) has been given by a person who himself did not believe in his coming and who denied the validity of the traditions concerning this matter. He was Ibn Khaldoon (d. 808/1406), a famous historian, in whose book, "al-Muqaddamah," wrote: "Let it be known that it is a narrated event by ALL Muslims in EVERY era, that at the end of time a man from the family of the Prophet (PBUH&HF) will, without fail, make his appearance and will strengthen Islam and spread justice; Muslims will follow him and he will gain domination over the Muslim realm. He will be called al-Mahdi." (An Introduction to History, by Ibn Khaldoon, English version, London, 1967 Edition, pp 257-258)

The above quote proves that even Ibn Khaldoon was in the opinion that the belief in Imam al-Mahdi was not a characteristics of a special sect of Islam, but was a common belief to ALL Muslims.

Sunni scholars openly criticized those elements (like Ibn Khaldoon) who tried to cast doubtthe traditions about al-Mahdi (AS), and have strongly asserted that the belief in Mahdi is well-established for ALL Muslims. See for instance: "Awnul Ma'bud" (which is the commentary of Sunan Abu Dawud), by al-Azimabadi, v11, pp 361-362, Tuhfatul Ahwadhi (which is the commentary of Sahih al-Tirmidhi), by al-Mubarakfuri, v6, p484, al-Tajul Jami' lil Usul, by Shaikh Mansoor Ali Nasif, v5, p341. Shaikh Ahmad Muhammad Shakir (d. 1377/1958), one of the greatest contemporary scholar of Hadith and Tafsir, whose major work was his commentary on Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (for a biography of Ahmad Shakir, see al-Aalam, v1, p253; Mu'jam al-Mu'allifeen, v13, p368) wrote in his commentary: "Belief in al-Mahdi is not particular to the Shia because it is from the narration of many companions of the Prophet in such way that NO one can cast doubt the truth (of this belief)." After this, he proceeds to a strong refutation of Ibn Khaldoon's weakening the traditions regarding al-Mahdi. (see Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal with commentary of Ahmad Muhammad Shakir, Pub. by Dar al-Ma'arif, Egypt, v5, pp 196-198, v14, p288).

Al-Sayid Sabiq, the Mufti for the "Muslim Brotherhood," in his book, "al- 'Aqa'id al-Islamiyyah," that: "The idea about the Mahdi is indeed valid, and is one of the Islamic tenets that one must believe in." Mr. Sabiq also narrated a variety of traditions relating to the appearance of al Mahdi (AS) in the above book.

The recent Fatwa in this issue was given in Mecca by "The Muslim World League" (Rabitatul 'Alamil Islami) on Oct. 11, 1976 (23 Shawwal 1396). This Fatwa states that more than twenty companions narrated traditions concerning al-Mahdi, and gives a list of those scholars of Hadith who have transmitted these narrations, and those who have written books on al-Mahdi. The Fatwa states: "The memorizers (Huffadh) and scholars of Hadith have verified that there are authentic (Sahih) and acceptable (Hasan) reports among the traditions related to al-Mahdi. The majority of these traditions are related through numerous authorities (Mutawatir). There is no doubt that the status of those reports are Sahih and Mutawatir. (They have also verified) that the belief in Mahdi is obligatory, and that it is one of the beliefs of Ahlussunnah wal Jama'a. Only those ignorant of the Sunnah and innovators in doctrine deny it.
For the transcription and reproduction of this Fatwa, see, among others, the Introduction ofal-Ganji al-Shafi'i, in the book named "al-Bayan," Beirut, 1399/1979, pp 76-79 and in Appendix.

Two Shafi'i scholars, Ganji in his book "al-Bayan", and Shablanji in his book "Noor al-Absar", on the verse 48:28 of Quran: "He is the One who sent his Messenger (Muhammad) with the guidance and the true religion that in order to prevail over all the religions" narrated from Sa'id Ibn Jubair that "this promise to Prophet Muhammad will be fulfilled by al-Mahdi who is in the progeny of Fatimah (AS)."

Even Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 728/1328), who is acclaimed by the Wahhabis, wrote in his book "Minhaj al-Sunnah" (v4, pp 211-212) that the traditions concerning the Mahdi are certainly reliable, and his student, al-Dhahabi, conformed with him in his summary of his teacher's book. (See Mukhtasar Minhaj al-Sunnah, pp 533-534).

Among the Shia scholars, I would like to mention the masterpiece of Lutfullah al-Safi al-Golpaygani, who compiled an encyclopedia named "Muntakhab al-Athar". In this book, there is a comprehensive narration of the traditions regarding to the appearance of Imam al-Mahdi (AS) and the description of the world before and after his appearance. He has used over 60 Sunni sources, including their six major book of Hadith; and over 90 Shi'ite sources to illuminate the fact that al-Mahdi is NOT a fabricated event.

As far as we have been able to discover, at least 35 prominent Sunni scholars have written 46 of books EXCLUSIVELY about Imam al-Mahdi (AS), the leader of our time. Here are some of the name of some of these books:

"Kitab al-Mahdi," by Abu Dawud.
"Alamat al-Mahdi," by Jalaluddin al-Suyuti.
"al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi Alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntadhar," by Ibn Hajar.
"Al-Bayan fi Akhbar Sahib al-Zaman," by Allamah Abu Abdillah Ibn Muhammad Yusuf al-Ganji al-Shafi'i.
"Iqd al-Durar fi Akbar al-Imam al-Muntadhar," by Shaikh Jamaluddin Yusuf al-Damishqi.
"Mahdi Aale Rasool," by Ali Ibn Sultan Muhammad al-Harawi al-Hanafi.
"Manaqib al-Mahdi," by al-Hafidh Abu Nu'aym al-Isbahani.
"Al-Burhan fi Alamat al-Mahdi Akhir al-Zaman," by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi.
"Arba'in Hadith fi al-Mahdi," by Abdul Ala al-Hamadani.
"Akhbar al-Mahdi," by al-Hafidh Abu Nu'aym.

In conclusion, the belief in the coming Mahdi (AS) who is a person other than Jesus (AS), is an undeniable fact for the Sunnis. As we discussed above, the Sunni scholars affirm that belief in "Mahdi of the House of the Prophet" is one of the Islamic tenets for "Ahlussunnah wal Jama'a". In the next part, however, we will discuss the points of differences between the Shia and most Sunnis on the issue of Imam al-Mahdi.

Aus den "Kutub as-Sitta" (den sechs wichtigsten Hadith-Sammlungen der sunnitischen Rechtsschulen)

Sahih Muslim (Englische Version)

Yazid b. Hayyan reported, I went along with Husain b. Sabra and 'Umar b. Muslim to Zaid b. Arqam and, as we sat by his side, Husain said to him: Zaid. you have been able to acquire a great virtue that you saw Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) listened to his talk, fought by his side in (different) battles, offered prayer behind me. Zaid, you have in fact earned a great virtue. Zaid, narrate to us what you heard from Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him). He said: I have grown old and have almost spent my age and I have forgotten some of the things which I remembered in connection with Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him), so accept whatever I narrate to you, and which I do not narrate do not compel me to do that. He then said: One day Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) stood up to deliver sermon at a watering place known as Khumm situated between Mecca and Medina. He praised Allah, extolled Him and delivered the sermon and. exhorted (us) and said: Now to our purpose. O people, I am a human being. I am about to receive a messenger (the angel of death) from my Lord and I, in response to Allah's call, (would bid good-bye to you), but I am leaving among you two weighty things: the one being the Book of Allah in which there is right guidance and light, so hold fast to the Book of Allah and adhere to it. He exhorted (us) (to hold fast) to the Book of Allah and then said: The second are the members of my household I remind you (of your duties) to the members of my family. He (Husain) said to Zaid: Who are the members of his household? Aren't his wives the members of his family? Thereupon he said: His wives are the members of his family (but here) the members of his family are those for whom acceptance of Zakat is forbidden. And he said: Who are they? Thereupon he said: 'Ali and the offspring of 'Ali, 'Aqil and the offspring of 'Aqil and the offspring of Ja'far and the offspring of 'Abbas. Husain said: These are those for whom the acceptance of Zakat is forbidden. Zaid said: Yes. (Sahih Muslim, Book 31 Kitab Al-Fada'il Al-Sahabah, Engl. Version, Nr. 5920)

This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Zaid b. Arqam through another chain of transmitters. (Sahih Muslim, Book 31 Kitab Al-Fada'il Al-Sahabah, Engl. Version, Nr. 5921)

This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Abu Hayyan but with this addition:" The Book of Allah contains right guidance, the light, and whoever adheres to it and holds it fast, he is upon right guidance and whosoever deviates from it goes astray. (Sahih Muslim, Book 31 Kitab Al-Fada'il Al-Sahabah, Engl. Version, Nr. 5922)

Yazid b. Hayyan reported: We went to him (Zaid b. Arqam) and said to him. You have found goodness (for you had the honour) to live in the company of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) and offered prayer behind him, and the rest of the hadith is the same but with this variation of wording that lie said: Behold, for I am leaving amongst you two weighty things, one of which is the Book of Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, and that is the rope of Allah. He who holds it fast would be on right guidance and he who abandons it would be in error, and in this (hadith) these words are also found: We said: Who are amongst the members of the household? Aren't the wives (of the Holy Prophet) included amongst the members of his house hold? Thereupon he said: No, by Allah, a woman lives with a man (as his wife) for a certain period; he then divorces her and she goes back to her parents and to her people; the members of his household include his ownself and his kith and kin (who are related to him by blood) and for him the acceptance of Zakat is prohibited. (Sahih Muslim, Book 31 Kitab Al-Fada'il Al-Sahabah, Engl. Version, Nr. 5923)

Abu Nadra reported:" We were in the company of Jabir b. 'Abdulldh that he said it may happen that the people of Iraq may not send their qafiz and dirhams (their measures of food stuff and their money). We said: Who would be respolisible for it? He said: The non_Arabs would prevt them. He again said: There is the possibility that the people of Syria may not send their dinar and mudd. We said: Who would be responsible for it? He said This prevention would be made by the Romans. He (Jabir b. Abdullab) kept quiet for a while and then reported Allah', s Messengdt (may peas be upon him) having said There would be a caliph in the last (period) of my Ummah who would freely give handfuls of wealth to thd people wiothout counting it. I said to Abu Nadra and Abu al-'Ala: DO you mean 'Umarb. 'Abd al-Aziz? They said: No (he would be Imam Mahdi.). (Sahih Muslim, Book 41 Kitab Al-Fitan wa Ashrat As-Sa`ah, Nr. 6961)

Sunan Abi Dawud, Kitab Al-Mahdi (Buch 36, Englische Übersetzung):

 Narrated Jabir ibn Samurah: The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) said: The religion will continue to be established till there are twelve caliphs over you, and the whole community will agree on each of them. I then heard from the Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) some remarks which I could not understand. I asked my father: What is he saying: He said: all of them will belong to Quraysh. (Sunan Abi Dawud, Kitab Al-Mahdi (Buch 36, Engl. Version), Nr. 4266)

Narrated Abdullah ibn Mas'ud: The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) said: If only one day of this world remained. Allah would lengthen that day (according to the version of Za'idah), till He raised up in it a man who belongs to me or to my family whose father's name is the same as my father's, who will fill the earth with equity and justice as it has been filled with oppression and tyranny (according to the version of Fitr). Sufyan's version says: The world will not pass away before the Arabs are ruled by a man of my family whose name will be the same as mine. (Sunan Abi Dawud, Kitab Al-Mahdi (Buch 36, Engl. Version), Nr. 4269)

Narrated Ali ibn AbuTalib: The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) said: If only one day of this time (world) remained, Allah would raise up a man from my family who would fill this earth with justice as it has been filled with oppression. (Sunan Abi Dawud, Kitab Al-Mahdi (Buch 36, Engl. Version), Nr. 4270)

Narrated Umm Salamah, Ummul Mu'minin: The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) said: The Mahdi will be of my family, of the descendants of Fatimah. Abdullah ibn Ja'far said: I heard AbulMalih praising Ali ibn Nufayl and describing his good qualities. (Sunan Abi Dawud, Kitab Al-Mahdi (Buch 36, Engl. Version), Nr. 4271)

 Narrated AbuSa'id al-Khudri: The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) said: The Mahdi will be of my stock, and will have a broad forehead a prominent nose. He will fill the earth will equity and justice as it was filled with oppression and tyranny, and he will rule for seven years. (Sunan Abi Dawud, Kitab Al-Mahdi (Buch 36, Engl. Version), Nr. 4272)

Narrated Umm Salamah, Ummul Mu'minin: The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) said: Disagreement will occur at the death of a caliph and a man of the people of Medina will come flying forth to Mecca. Some of the people of Mecca will come to him, bring him out against his will and swear allegiance to him between the Corner and the Maqam. An expeditionary force will then be sent against him from Syria but will be swallowed up in the desert between Mecca and Medina. When the people see that, the eminent saints of Syria and the best people of Iraq will come to him and swear allegiance to him between the Corner and the Maqam.
Then there will arise a man of Quraysh whose maternal uncles belong to Kalb and send against them an expeditionary force which will be overcome by them, and that is the expedition of Kalb. Disappointed will be the one who does not receive the booty of Kalb. He will divide the property, and will govern the people by the Sunnah of their Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) and establish Islam on Earth. He will remain seven years, then die, and the Muslims will pray over him. (Sunan Abi Dawud, Kitab Al-Mahdi (Buch 36, Engl. Version), Nr. 4273)

Narrated Ali ibn AbuTalib: AbuIshaq told that Ali looked at his son al-Hasan and said: This son of mine is a sayyid (chief) as named by the Prophet (peace_be_upon_him), and from his loins will come forth a man who will be called by the name of your Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) and resemble him in conduct but not in appearance. He then mentioned the story about his filling the earth with justice. (Sunan Abi Dawud, Kitab Al-Mahdi (Buch 36, Engl. Version), Nr. 4276A)

Narrated Ali ibn AbuTalib: The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) said: A man called al-Harith ibn Harrath will come forth from Ma Wara an-Nahr. His army will be led by a man called Mansur who will establish or consolidate things for Muhammad's family as Quraysh consolidated them for the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him). Every believer must help him, or he said: respond to his sermons. (Sunan Abi Dawud, Kitab Al-Mahdi (Buch 36, Engl. Version), Nr. 4277)



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